Mark Chavez

Mark Chavez

Learning how to learn.

Loading Files in Ruby

November 09, 2020

With Ruby, there are always multiple ways to accomplish a thing — loading files being one of them. In this article, I’ll be talking about the different ways of requiring/loading a ruby file, namely:

  1. require
  2. require_relative
  3. load
  4. autoload

Using require

The keyword require is what I often see when browsing ruby source code but it’s the concept that I least understood quite ironically. And just recently, I committed my time (finally!) to actually learning what it does and how it works.

First, it helps to understand what $LOAD_PATH means. It is basically an environment variable that contains an array of directories to look at. So if the file you’re requiring is not present in $LOAD_PATH, then it shouldn’t be able to load it.

Given a directory structure:


And inside root.rb:

require "other_file" # won't find the file

To make this work, let’s add lib to the $LOAD_PATH:

$LOAD_PATH << "lib"
require "other_file" # works

Instead of using << and adding the directory as the last entry to the path array, you can do the opposite unshift which will add it to the first entry, hence faster lookup.

Using require_relative

This one’s easier and coming from the method name, it’s literally requiring the file in a relative manner. We can accomplish the above example using require_relative by doing:

require_relative "lib/other_file"

We don’t need to change or modify $LOAD_PATH but keep in mind that you may have to update this if you move the files.

Using load

Another thing to keep in mind when using both require and require_relative is that no matter how many times you require the same file, the code will run only once. It’s quite the opposite of what load does.

$LOAD_PATH << "lib"

require "other_file" # runs the code
require "other_file" # does not run the code
require "other_file" # does not run the code

load "other_file" # runs the code
load "other_file" # re-runs the code
load "other_file" # re-runs the code

Using autoload

It lazy loads the file.

$LOAD_PATH << "lib"
autoload :SomeModuleInTheFile, "other_file" # does not load the file # finally loads the file

Which one should you use should depend on the use-case but I find that for bigger projects like Rails, it helps to avoid loading a huge number of files at once so I’ve seen parts of it with heavy use of autoloading.

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